Common subordinating conjunctions

An adverb clause is a type of subordinate clause. It always begins with a subordinating conjunction and it needs to be attached to a dependent clause because it cannot stand alone.

Adverb clauses usually indicate a relationship of cause, effect, time, place, contrast, concession, comparison, condition, place, or time. Here’s a list of common subordinating conjunctions:


Common subordinating conjunctions used to show cause are: as, because, since, in order that and so that


Plating trees is a good idea because trees absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.

As he didn’t have any money to buy food, he had to starve.

Since she had been running for hours, she was tired.

She is planning to extend her stay in England, so that she can perfect her English.

We conduct tests each week in order that we can assess their progress.

Concession and comparison

The following conjunctions are used to express ideas such as concession and comparison: although, as, though, even though, whereas, while, just as etc.

Though Margaret was the most deserving candidate, she didn’t get the job.

Although I don’t like his company, I accepted his invitation.

Sam is very reserved whereas his brother is warm and friendly.

We went out even though it was raining.


The following conjunctions are used to express condition: if, even if, in case, provided that, unless

If you work hard, you will improve your chances of getting into a prestigious university.

Unless she apologizes we will not take her back.

I will come provided that I am invited.