Glossary of Grammar Terms Part II
An adjective clause is the same as a relative clause. Adjective clauses are used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
An adjective phrase is a phrase constructed around an adjective. For example, the adjective phrase ‘as beautiful as Alice’ is constructed around the adjective beautiful. Similarly, the adjective phrase ‘very interesting’ is constructed around the adjective interesting.
The term adjunct refers to a part of the sentence which could be removed without producing any ungrammaticality. For example, in the sentence ‘I visited them yesterday’, the adverb yesterday is an adjunct because it can be removed without producing ungrammaticality of any kind. Note that adjuncts are always adverbial in nature.
The term adverbial refers to any linguistic item that behaves like an adverb. An adverbial may be an adverb phrase, a prepositional phrase, an adverbial clause or a non-finite verb phrase. Words or phrases given in bold text in the following sentences are examples of adverbials.
John told me rather unhappily that he would have to find another job because he had been sacked by his current employer.
Adverbial clause or adverb clause
Any subordinate clause which behaves like an adverb is called an adverbial clause. Adverb clauses are used to express time, place, manner, cause, purpose, concession, condition or another circumstance. In the sentences given below, the adverb clauses are given in bold text.
As soon as she finished her job, she went to the library. (Time)
We had a drink before we left. (Time)
Susie drives better than John does. (Manner)
She takes her laptop wherever she goes. (Place)
If you heat ice, it melts. (Condition)
An adverb phrase is a phrase built around an adverb. An adverb phrase functions in the same way as an adverb. Examples are: slowly, carelessly, rather unhappily, very soon, now etc.
This is a label applied to a statement which contains no negative words. Examples are given below:
She sat there waiting for him to come.
The Earth moves around the Sun.
It is raining.
The label affirmative may also be applied to questions and commands that do not contain a negative word.