More on the use of present perfect tense

The present perfect tense generally represents an action which has been completed within a period of time that extends up to and includes the present time.

Subject + transitive verb (present perfect) + object + adverbials or complements

Have you seen him this morning?
I have never seen anything like this before.
We have endured his tyranny for several years now.
He has not returned the book he borrowed from me.
I have just completed my book on Hindu mythology.
They have not yet paid the arrears from 1995 onwards.

Subject + intransitive verb (present perfect) + adverbials or complements

We have lived here for ten years.
The company has grown enormously in the last two years.
He has already gone to the post office.
I have been there this morning.


Adverbs of past time
(e.g. yesterday, last year, two years ago etc.) cannot be used with the present perfect tense. However, adverbs like just, recently, as yet, ever, never, already, today, this morning etc., can be used with the present perfect tense.

Common errors

I have written to him yesterday. (Wrong)
I wrote to him yesterday. OR I have written to him. (Right)
His father has died last year. (Wrong)
His father died last year. OR His father has died. (Right)