Connecting devices

Conjunctions are words used to connect. They join words, phrases or clauses together. Conjunctions are essential cohesive devices. They help writers add variety to their writing. If there were no conjunctions, your writing would be full of short, simple sentences.

Conjunctions are not the only connecting devices in English. Sometimes we also use adverbs to facilitate the smooth transition of ideas between sentences and paragraphs.

There are several conjunctive adverbs in English. Here is the list:

Accordingly, also, besides, consequently, conversely, finally, furthermore, hence, however, indeed,   instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, otherwise, similarly, still, subsequently, then, therefore and thus.

A conjunctive adverb cannot join two main clauses. It goes at the beginning of the second clause and is usually separated from the first clause by a semi-colon or a full stop.

Although it does not connect the two clauses in the strict sense of the term, it still establishes a connection between the two.

Examples are given below.

The dark clouds dissuaded me from my evening walk; moreover, I had some important assignments to complete.

My landlady doesn’t allow me to keep a dog in my rented apartment; otherwise, I would have happily bought a puppy from the neighborhood pet store.

A conjunctive adverb that goes in the middle of the sentence is usually separated from the rest of the sentence using a pair of commas.

She didn’t win the first prize. She was, nevertheless, happy with her performance.


She didn’t win the first prize. Nevertheless, she was happy with her performance.

At 3 pm, he was supposed to be attending his spoken English class. Instead, he was playing poker with his friends.