Posts Tagged ‘singular’

Irregular and special plurals

September 8th, 2011 in Improve English

Nouns ending in –f or –fe usually have plurals ending in –ves.

Singular plural
Calf Calves
Elf Elves
Half Halves
Knife Knives
Life Lives
Loaf Loaves
Self Selves
Sheaf Sheaves
Shelf Shelves
Thief Thieves
Wife Wives
Wolf wolves


The words dwarf, hoof, scarf and wharf can have two plural forms – one ending in –fs and another ending in –ves.

Dwarf – dwarfs/ dwarves

Hoof – hoofs / hooves

Scarf – scarfs / scarves

Other irregular plurals

Singular Plural
Child Children
Foot Feet
Goose Geese
Louse Lice
Man Men
Mouse Mice
Ox Oxen
Penny Pence
Person People
Tooth Teeth
Woman Women

The plural form pennies can be used to talk about separate penny coins. In an official style, persons is sometimes used as the plural of person. People, the plural form of the noun person, can be used as a singular noun when it means nation.

Plural same as singular

Some words ending in –s do not change in the plural. Common examples are given below.


Singular Plural
Crossroads Crossroads
Headquarters Headquarters
Series Series
Species Species
Means Means

Some singular uncountable nouns ending in –s do not have plural forms. Examples are: news, measles, billiards etc.


In modern English, data and dice are used as both singular and plural.

Nouns like aircraft, spacecraft, hovercraft etc do not change in the plural.