The following lists are given for reference and study.
-able, -ible: These are used to make adjectives. Different meanings are possible:
a) that can be / is liable to be
Curable (That can be cured)
Eatable (That can be eaten)
More examples: justifiable, conceivable, taxable, digestible, compressible
b) having the qualities of
c) likely to
Examples: suitable, knowledgeable
-ably, -ibly: These are used to make adverbs from adjectives ending in -able, -ible.
Examples are: peaceably, suitably, conceivably
-al: This is used to make nouns and adjectives.
Monumental = of a monument
National = of a nation
Constitutional = of a constitution or in accordance with a constitution
-ance, -ence: These are used to make nouns
Avoidance (act of avoiding)
Annoyance (being annoyed)
Absence (being absent)
Prudence (being prudent)
Inheritance (what is inherited)
Hindrance (Something that hinders)
-ant, -ent: These are used to make nouns and adjectives from verbs.
Applicant (a person who applies)
Assistant (a person who assists)
Inhabitant (a person who inhabits)
Examples are: Irritant, president, student, superintendent
The suffixes -ant and -ent are also used to make adjectives from verbs.
Triumphant (feeling or showing triumph)
Indulgent (in the habit of indulging; showing indulgence)
-dom: This suffix is used to make nouns.
Freedom (state of being free)
Kingdom (lands of king)
Dukedom (position of duke)
-ed and -d: These are used to make past tense and past participle.
Forced, abandoned, distressed, surprised, bridged, used
-en: This suffix is used to make verbs from adjectives and nouns.
Examples are: shorten, deepen, soften, harden, strengthen, lengthen etc
-ful: This suffix is used with abstract nouns to make adjectives.
Examples are: Wonderful, hopeful, graceful
It may also be used with concrete nouns to make nouns.
Handful, cupful etc.